Issue 2 Issue 1. Issue 3 Issue 2 Issue 1. Issue Issue 1. Download citations. Miaojie Yu. Published online: 21 May Will America create a Cold War with China. Jeffrey D. Published online: 09 Apr The US-China trade conflict after forty years of special protection. Chad P. Published online: 29 Apr Why will Trump lose the trade war? Published online: 13 Apr Understanding the recent Sino-U. Published online: 22 Apr China—US trade: implications on conflicts. Larry D. Published online: 02 Apr Daniel Trefler. Evidence from China. Oxford Review of Economic Policy, 32 3 , — Aschauer, D.
Is public expenditure productive? Journal of Monetary Economics, 23, — Baltagi, B. Public capital stock and state productivity growth: Further evidence from an error components model. Empirical Economics, 20 2 , — Banister, D. Transport investment and the promotion of economic growth.
Journal of Transport Geography, 9 3 , — Baum-Snow, N. Urban transport expansions, employment decentralization, and the spatial scope of agglomeration economies Working paper. Brown University, Providence, RI.
Transport infrastructure, urban growth and market access in China Working paper. Beyzatlar, M.
To Understand China’s Economy, Look to Its Politics
Granger-causality between transportation and GDP: A panel data approach. Blumenberg, E. A driving factor in mobility? Journal of the American Planning Association, 80 1 , 52— Bom, P. What have we learned from three decades of research on the productivity of public capital? Journal of Economic Surveys, 28 5 , — Bottasso, A.
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Ports and regional development: A spatial analysis on a panel of European regions. Is infrastructure capital productive? A dynamic heterogeneous approach. Journal of Applied Econometrics, 30 2 , 1— Chatman, D. Estimating the effect of land use and transportation planning on travel patterns: Three problems in controlling for residential self-selection. Journal of Transport and Land Use, 7 3 , 47— Chen, Z.
SOAS University of London
Public surface transportation and regional output: A spatial panel approach. Papers in Regional Science, 94 4 , — Impact of high-speed rail on regional economic disparity in China. Journal of Transport Geography, 65, 80— The impact of high-speed rail investment on economic and environmental change in China: A dynamic CGE analysis.
DeLaurentis, D. Network-theoretic approach for analyzing connectivity in air transportation networks. Journal of aircraft, 45 5 , — Donaldson, D. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 2 , — Duranton, G. Urban growth and transportation.
Review of Economic Studies, 79 4 , — Elhorst, J. As He and Kuijs 17 x J. In fact, the increase would have been larger but for the decline in relative prices of industry. Industry-led growth requires a particularly high level of energy consumption, which is damaging to the environment. C, , p. Environmental degradation has imposed serious costs on the Chinese economy and reduced the well-being of the Chinese population.
It is unsafe for human contact, unsuitable even for irrigation, and cannot be safely purified for human uses. Grade three is the standard for direct human contact and also for use in purification for drinking water. In addition, China is now the second-largest emitter of greenhouse gases and is home to 16 of the 20 cities with the worst air pollution on the globe.
In , two out of three cities in China failed to meet the residential ambient air quality standards of the State Environmental Protection Administration SEPA , and air quality problems cause more than , premature deaths annually. A report issued by the World Bank in indicates that the total cost of air and water pollution in China in was billion Yuan, or approximately 5. Second, the disproportionate capital-intensive pattern of growth appears to have contributed to a slower pace of job creation as well as to urban-rural inequality.
Between and , employment expanded by 2. Correspondingly, urban employment growth decreased from 5. The persistent productivity gap between agriculture and the rest of the economy has exacerbated rural-urban income inequality and is an important reason behind the increase in the rural-urban income gap from 2. In other words, export-oriented growth is not sustainable.
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Excessive reliance on external demand helps China sustain a considerable GDP growth, but it then exposes China to huge economic risks, both internationally and domestically. Bergsten, C.
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Freeman, N. Finally, the Solow model has shown that without technological progress, the ability of an economy to raise output per capita via capital accumulation is limited. The impact on GDP growth of capital accumulation will continuously decline due to the principle of diminishing returns. The lower the ratio is, the more efficiently capital spending can generate growth. It is impossible to finance such a high level of investment in the long run, and the investment-driven economy will finally reach its dead end.
The policy implication of these studies is that China should and is able to promote domestic consumption demand as a more important source of economic growth via significant economic policy changes, such as liberalizing interest rates and exchange rates, allocating more public expenditure to social programs, deregulating financial markets, etc. But inflation, as measured by the CPI, increased from Thus, the real rate of return on demand deposits went from 1.
Similarly, inflation converted the real return of one-year term deposits from 2. If interest earnings after the early s had grown in line with the stock of household bank deposits, by , the contribution of interest income to household disposable income would have been 8. Calomiris ed.
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Ma and Wang 38 x G. In particular, SOEs benefit disproportionately from such financial repression. For example, Ferri and Liu 39 x G. The low cost of financing, together with other factors such as a low dividend payment 40 x Yang et al.
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