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Since your Introduction went from the general to a specific question, going from the specific back to the general will help to tie your ideas and arguments together. This section should not offer any reasons for those particular conclusions--these should have been presented in the Discussion section.

By looking at only the Introduction and Conclusions sections, a reader should have a good idea of what the researcher has investigated and discovered even though the specific details of how the work was done would not be known. In this section you should give credit to people who have helped you with the research or with writing the paper.

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If your work has been supported by a grant, you would also give credit for that in this section. This section lists, in alphabetical order by author, all published information that was referred to anywhere in the text of the paper. It provides the readers with the information needed should they want to refer to the original literature on the general problem. Note that the Literature Cited section includes only those references that were actually mentioned cited in the paper. Any other information that the researcher may have read about the problem but did not mention in the paper is not included in this section.

This is why the section is called "Literature Cited" instead of "References" or "Bibliography".

The system of citing reference material in scientific journals varies with the particular journal. The method that you will follow is the "author-date" system. Listed below are several examples of how citations should be presented in the text of your paper. The name s of the author s and year of publication are included in the body of the text.

Sentence structure determines the placement of the parentheses. One author : 'Scott's model fails to Two authors : 'Libby and Libby show Three or more authors : 'Roche et al. Entries in the Literature Cited section are listed alphabetically by author s and chronologically for papers by the same author s. The following citations illustrate the details of punctuation and order of information for a journal article, book, Internet source, and your laboratory packet. Schneider, M. Occurrence of indoleacetic acid in the bryophytes.

Stebbins, G. Processes of Organic Evolution. Prentice-Hall, New Jersey. Smithsonian Institution. Colby Biology Department. Salt Tolerance in Phaseolus vulgaris. In: Introduction to Biology: Organismal Biology. Generally, most references will be to the primary literature i. Popular literature and the Internet should be used sparingly and with caution.

Other sources such as book chapters and pamphlets typically have their own specific citation formats.

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If necessary, be sure to find out what these formats are and use them appropriately. Council of Biology Editors, Inc. This guide is based on a paper by Gubanich, A. Writing the scientific paper in the investigative lab. Teacher, 39 1 : Examples from the scientific literature that illustrate material in various sections of a scientific paper.

Excerpted from: Hasegawa, K. Revision of the theory of phototropism in plants: a new interpretation of a classical experiment. Planta Went's classical experiment on the diffusion of auxin activity from unilaterally illuminated oat coleoptile tips Went , was repeated as precisely as possible. In agreement with Went's data with the Avena curvature assay, the agar blocks from the illuminated side of oat Avena sativa L. However, determination of the absolute amounts of indoleacetic acid IAA in the agar blocks, using a physicochemical assay following purification, showed that the IAA was evenly distributed in the blocks from the illuminated and shaded sides.

In the blocks from the shaded and dark-control halves the amounts of IAA were 2. Chromatography of the diffusates prior to the Avena curvature test demonstrated that the amounts of two growth inhibitors, especially of the more polar one, were significantly higher in the agar blocks from the illuminated side than in those from the shaded side and the dark control.

These results show that the basic experiment from which the Cholodny-Went theory was derived does not justify this theory.

The data rather indicate that phototropism is caused by the light-induced, local accumulation of growth inhibitors against a background of even auxin distribution, the diffusion of auxin being unaffected. Excerpted from: Farmer, E. Interplant communication: airborne methyl jasmonate induces synthesis of proteinase inhibitors in plant leaves. Inducible defensive responses in plants are known to be activated locally and systematically by signaling molecules that are produced at sites of pathogen or insect attacks, but only one chemical signal, ethylene, is known to travel through the atmosphere to activate plant defensive genes.

Methyl jasmonate, a common plant secondary compound, when applied to surfaces of tomato plants, induces the synthesis of defensive proteinase inhibitor proteins in the treated plants and in nearby plants as well. The presence of methyl jasmonate in the atmosphere of chambers containing plants from three species of two families, Solanaceae and Fabaceae, results in the accumulation of proteinase inhibitors in leaves of all three species. When sagebrush, Artemesia tridentata , a plant shown to possess methyl jasmonate in leaf surface structures, is incubated in chambers with tomato plants, proteinase inhibitor accumulation is induced in the tomato leaves, demonstrating that interplant communication can occur from leaves of one species of plant to leaves of another species to activate the expression of defensive genes.

Excerpted from: Shukla, A.

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Cytokinins in a genic male sterile line of Brassica napus. The failure or inability of an individual to produce functional gametes under a given set of environmental conditions is known as sterility. Male sterility in plants is generally associated with the lack of production of viable pollen; however its expression can vary Frankel and Galun , Kaul In any event, male sterility is of fundamental importance in the production of hybrid seeds and in breeding programs.

Plant growth substances, both exogenously applied and endogenous, have often been implicated in the regulation of male sterility in several plant species Frankel and Galun , Kaul Cytokinins, gibberellins, auxins and abscisic acid, as well as polyamines, are all known to affect pollen and stamen development in a number of species e. The objective of this study was to determine a possible relationship between endogenous cytokinins with male sterility in the genic male sterile system in Brassica napus.

Thus, an analysis of a number of cytokinins in various organs of the wild type and genic male sterile plants was conducted. Excerpted from: Reader, R. Species-dependent effects of seed predation and ground cover on seedling emergence of old-field forbs. A major goal of plant ecology is to explain spatial variation in a species frequency of occurrence. Spatial variation in seed predation may contribute to spatial variation in plant frequency by reducing seed supply sufficiently to limit seedling emergence more at one location than another Louda , Anderson Spatial variation in seed predation is well documented e.

Since factors such as dense ground cover may suppress seedling emergence regardless of the amount of seed predation Harper , additional studies are needed to clarify the effect of seed predation on seedling emergence. Therefore, we examined the effects of both seed predation and ground cover i. Extracted from: Sakoda, M. Mode of action of natural growth inhibitors in radish hypocotyl elongation -- influence of raphanusanins on auxin-mediated microtubule orientation. Seeds of Raphanus sativus L. After 3 days in darkness at 25oC, 4-mm hypocotyl segments were excised below the hook of the 3 cm long etiolated seedlings.

In other experiments, segments were preincubated for 1 h in small petri dishes containing 1 mM IAA solution, and then raphanusanin B was added to the medium final concentrations 1 or 3 mM. Segment lengths were measured using a microscope with microgauge. All manipulations were carried out under dim green light 3mW m Excerpted from: Kanbe, T. Dynamics of cytoplasmic organelles in the cell cycle of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe : Three-dimensional reconstruction from serial sections.

Cell Sci. Schizosaccharomyces pombe h90, the homothallic, readily sporing haploid strain, was used. The strain was maintained on malt extract-yeast extract MY agar as described by Tanaka and Kanbe Cells at the exponential phase were spread on a MY plate and further incubated at 30oC for 4 to 6 h before harvesting for microscopy.

For the staining of F-actin, cells were washed and suspended in Rh-ph solution Molecular Probes, Inc. Excerpted from: Takahashi, H.

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Stimulation of root elongation and curvature by calcium. Plant Physiol. Excerpted from: Sato, S. The RNA content of the nucleolus and nucleolus-like inclusions in the anther of Lilium estimated by an improved RNase-gold labelling method.

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Gold particles were predominant over the nuclear nucleolus-like bodies NLBs Fig. Although the distribution histogram of gold particles over the nuclear NLBs showed that labelling varied from 40 to particles mm-2, most of that fell in the range of 80 - 90 particles mm-2 Fig. The quantitative estimation of labelling, which represented the average number of gold particles per mm2, indicated the labelling over the nuclear NLBs to be twice as strong as that over the loosened chromatin, and four times as strong as that over the condensed chromatin Table 2.

Lix and William D. Authors: Franklin N. Glozah and Joyce Komesuor. Most recent articles RSS. View all articles. Content type: Research article. Content type: Technical Note. Content type: Short Report. Authors: Nicholas J Hudson. Most accessed articles RSS. Citation Impact 0. Authors submitting to this journal can opt to use a new service that will make it easier to share research data.

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