Use of this site constitutes acceptance of our terms and conditions of fair use. This section contains information on The Chicago Manual of Style method of document formatting and citation. These resources follow the seventeenth edition of The Chicago Manual of Style , which was issued in The title of a website that is analogous to a traditionally printed work but does not have and never had a printed counterpart can be treated like titles of other websites.
For example, Wikipedia can be treated as a website, rather than as a conventional encyclopedia. This is a departure from previous editions of CMOS. Titles of websites should follow headline-style capitalization and are usually set in roman without quotation marks. Sections of a website, such as a specific header, an individual page, a single blog entry, etc.
There are, however, some exceptions: titles of blogs are set in italics and titles of books, journals, television shows, movies, and other types of works should be treated the same whether cited as a print version or an online version. For example, when citing the website of the television news station CNN , the title maintains italics. Furthermore, in cases such as this, when a website does not have a distinctive title, it can be cited based on the entity responsible for the website, for instance, CNN online.
If in doubt regarding whether to use roman or italics, roman is the safer choice. The author of web content is often not immediately clear. If a name is given, use the name as you would in any other source. When a web page's author cannot be determined, simply list the title first. Note, however, that entries for sources without authors come before entries for sources with authors in the bibliography.
Otherwise, look for a revision date; many websites will make note of when they were last modified, edited, or revised. Electronic books e-books are cited exactly as their print counterparts with the addition of a media marker at the end of the citation: Kindle, PDF, EPUB, etc. Books consulted online are also cited exactly as their print counterparts with the addition of a DOI or URL at the end of the citation. See also Books. Note: Stable page numbers are not always available in electronic formats; therefore, you may include the number of chapter, section, or other easily recognizable locator instead.
Weston, Anthony. A Rulebook for Arguments , 4th ed. Indianapolis: Hackett, Online periodicals are cited exactly as their print counterparts with the addition of a DOI or URL at the end of the citation. See also Periodicals. Also keep in mind that while access dates are not required for formally published electronic sources e. For four or more authors, list the first author in the note followed by et al.
For the corresponding bibliographic entry, list all authors up to Blog titles should be set in italics and blog entries should be set in quotation marks. Generally, blog entries are cited only as notes. If you frequently cite a blog, however, then you may choose to include it in your bibliography. Posts on social media will often be cited only as notes, though if you intend to discuss the content in depth, you should also put a citation in the bibliography.
Since it is easy — and common — for social media posts to vanish with little notice, it is advisable to take a screenshot or similar record of anything you intend to cite, so that future edits or deletions will not undermine your work. Please note that all of this applies only to public content on social media. Private content, such as a direct message or a post in a restricted-membership group should be cited as a personal communication. Social media posts do not typically have titles, so if a title is not provided, simply use the text of the post, retaining all original capitalization, spelling, etc.
Do not include more than characters in this section of the citation; if the post is longer than that, cut it off with an ellipsis at a sensible point before the character mark is reached.
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Citation of a social media post should fit the following format:. Also, if you have quoted the full post in your main text, you can leave that out of your note citation.
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- Finding Sources.
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This section provides an overview of important concepts and techniques in gathering information for research essays. You should read this section before going to more specific information on types of sources, documentation, etc. If you go to the library, you will find that the old card catalog, which only lists books, has been replaced by a computer in most libraries. If you are doing research on a fairly new topic, this will be fine.
However, not all libraries have their entire collection on line.
So, if you are looking for information on say, the Civil War, and think that some older sources might be useful to you, be sure to ask the librarian if the library still maintains their card catalog. If they do, you should check there as well as checking the computer.
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The computer in the library usually will have instructions attached to it. Most library systems allow you to search by title, author, or subject headings, and most are cross-referenced. If you know which books you want, or know a specific author who has written books about the field that you are researching, then go ahead and use the title or author categories in the computer. You also may find it very helpful to use the subject heading category, which will offer you more options for the books that might be useful to you in doing your research.
The subject heading category allows you to put in key words that might lead to books in your interest area. Don't limit yourself, though, by putting in words that are too narrow or too broad. If your search words are too narrow, you will not find many sources; on the other hand if they are too broad, you will not find the search useful either. Key words are words that relate to your topic but are not necessarily in your thesis statement note that it will be most helpful if you have a clear idea about your topic before you begin this type of research, although research can also help to narrow your thesis.
For example, if you are searching for information about women in the Civil War, it would be too broad to enter just "women" and "war. It might also be too narrow to enter the name of a specific woman--you probably need more historical context. Try key phrases such as "women and Civil War" or "girls and Civil War. You will also discover that there is another great way to find books that might be helpful to you.
As you find books on your topic listed in the computer, you can then track those books down on the shelf.
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After a few minutes of searching on the computer, you will start to see that certain books have call numbers the number on the book's spine that tells its location in the library that are similar. After you finish your work on the computer, ask a reference librarian, or follow the signs on the walls to locate the call numbers that correspond with your books.
When you get to the section where your book is located, don't just look at that book. Look around, too. Sometimes you will find great resources that you were unaware of just by looking on the shelf. Because libraries are generally organized by topic, you can often find some real "gems" this way.
Also check the index in the front or the back of the book the one in the back is always more detailed, but not all books have one to be sure that the information you are looking for is in the book. A book can have a great title, but no information. On the other hand, a book that doesn't seem to go along with what you are doing can turn out to have a lot of usable information.
Books are generally a great resource--they often contain a lot of information gathered into one place, and they can give you a more thorough investigation of your topic. As you are reading a book, journal article, or newspaper article, you should keep the following questions in mind, which will help you understand how useful the book will be to you.
Magazines including Time or Newsweek are called periodicals as they are published periodically weekly, monthly, etc. Most libraries only keep the most current issues of these magazines on the shelf. The rest are bound together in collections, usually by year. These are usually kept in a separate room in the basement, to my experience! Usually, the location is a place called "the stacks," which is where you go to look for periodicals that are older than the current issue.
Remember that you can't take these out of the library.
Q. How do I cite a company website?
If you find articles that you want to take home, you need to photocopy them. Newspaper articles are sometimes in the bound periodicals, but are more often found on microfiche or microfilm. Make sure to distinguish between general interest magazines and professional journals; this is an important distinction in college-level research. Microfiche or microfilm is a device which can be extremely frustrating. Don't hesitate to ask for help from your nearby reference person. Microfiche or microfilm comes in two forms--small cards of information fiche , or long film-type strips of information film.
Once you insert these into the microfiche or microfilm machine and there are separate machines for each , you will be able to see the text of the article that you are looking for. Often, you will have to scan through quite a bit of film to find what you are looking for. Microfiche and microfilm are kept in boxes, and sometimes you have to request the date that you are looking for. Don't give up! With persistence, you can find some wonderful resources on microfiche and microfilm.
Finding Sources | Online Writing Center | SUNY Empire State College
Many libraries today, especially if they are larger libraries, have information available on CDROM or through what are called specialized databases. Be sure to tell a reference librarian what you are working on, and ask her advice on whether or not there is information available on CDROM or through a specialized database. Government documents are currently available on CDROM and often offer updated information census data, for example.
The reference librarian can tell you which CDs might be the most helpful and can help you sign them out and use them. There are many specialized databases. Some examples are ERIC, the educational database, and Silver Platter, which offers texts of recent articles in particular subjects yep, the whole article is available right through the computer, which is often less time-consuming than looking through the stacks for it The American Psychological Association has the titles of articles on specific subjects psychology, sociology, etc.
Sociofile is another example. Ask your reference librarian to see exactly what is available. One good thing about specialized databases is that you already know the source and orientation of the article. You also know that the source is a valid and reputable one.
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